The main difference in potato types is whether they are 'waxy' or floury. 'Waxy' potatoes have more sugars, and don't handle roasting or 'french frying' (in olive or canola oil, remember) very well. But they are very good for boiling, because they hold their shape well. This is a particularly important attribute when you are cubing potatoes for potato salad.
'Floury' potatoes tend to fall apart in the pot when they are boiled. But they are excellent baked or roasted or 'french fried'. Floury potaoes give that light, steamy, fluffy interior when fried in fat or when baked.
But 'waxiness' or 'flouriness' is usually a spectrum- some are rather waxy, some are rather floury, and some are midway between. Those midway between are good general purpose spuds for any cooking method.
The attributes of waxiness or flouriness are also influenced by the growing conditions, and by the age of the tuber. New potatoes are more waxy because some of their sugars are yet to be converted to starch, and old potatoes that have been in storage for a long time become more floury.
The best strategy for the Urban food gardener is to grow early potatoes (even use a plastic cloche to speed them up and protect from frost), or a potato variety with gourmet qualities that you are really 'sold' on.
small earlies can be 'tickled' about 2 months from sowing. The main
crop is ready about 3 months from planting
Draga Boiling, mashing, potato salad. NZ
Jersey Bennie Boiling, mashing, potato salad. NZ
Rocket General purpose. NZ
Main Crop Potatoes-ready about five months from sowing.
Rua General purpose. NZ
Nadine Boiling, mashing, potato salad. NZ
Red Rascal Roasting, Baking, French Fries. NZ
Karaka General purpose. NZ